Make your own free website on
Home | House pics | FSF 1P1- Study Notes | FSF 1P1 Homework Summary | Grade 7 Social Studies- Study Notes | Grade 7 Social Studies- Homework Summary | Grade 8 Social Studies- Study Notes | Grade 8 Social Studies- Homework Summary | "Seven Habits" | CALENDAR of IMPORTANT EVENTS | About Mrs. Turgeon.... | VIRTUAL OPEN HOUSE

Grade 8 Social Studies- Study Notes



Evaluation Breakdown

TEST- 30%
PROVINCE/TERRITORY research (Corel slideshow)- 40%
Class assignments (concept storyboard, dollar bill design etc.) 30%


1. Who were the first 4 provinces to join Confederation?

Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick in 1867

2. Who was Canada's first Prime Minister?

Sir John A. MacDonald

3. What were the six main reasons FOR Confederation?
- threat of US takeover
- Britain didn't want to continue paying for the colonies' military and government
- They would have the resources to build an interprovincial railroad (Canadian Pacific Railroad)
- infighting in the United Province of Canada. It made more sense to split them into "Ontario" and "Quebec"
- cancellation of the Reciprocity Treaty in 1865 ended free trade with the US. The colonies needed to trade freely with each other, without tariffs, to make money.
- Joining together would make it easier to expand westward into Rupert's Land (present day prairie provinces) and the Northwest Territories.

Confederation Test-

SECTION A- Matching (12 marks)
SECTION B- Multiple Choice (8 marks)
SECTION C- Short Answer (5 x 2marks= 10 marks)
SECTION D- Label Map of 1867 Canada (see the textbook)- 10 marks
SECTION E- Essay question- (10 marks) "What is the Canadian identity?" This question has to be answered in paragraph format. First paragraph will be the introduction (3-5 sentences). In the second paragraph students will give three ideas with proof (5-7 sentences). The third paragraph will be the conclusion (3-5 sentences)



NOTE (November 14th)- Rupert's Land- Compare and Contrast

Woodland Cree- Lived in small family groups in the northern woodlands, met all needs from environment

Siksika- Nomadic, followed migrating herds of buffalo across the plains, used all parts of the buffalo.

Metis- Mixed Native and European descent, 4000 lived in Red River area.

UNITED PROVINCE OF CANDA- Canada West became ONTARIO where the majority of people were English. Canada East became QUEBEC where the majority of people were French. Overall there were more English than French in UPC.


BRITISH EMPIRE- began with English overseas exploration and colonization in the 16th century. It grew as English colonies throughout the world. All land that is controlled by Britain.

RECIPROCITY- A mutual arrangement between two or more, eg. an agreement for limited free trade between 2 countries

TARIFF- tax paid on goods brought into a colony or country; tariffs protect internal production by raising the price on imported products and raising revenue for the government.

MERCANTILISM- economic theory that called for a country to accumulate wealth in gold and silver. A trade union between mother country and colonies.

FREE TRADE- trade between two countires without taxes and tariffs on imports and exports.

NOTE (NOVEMBER 24) Reasons for Confederation

Confederation is the federal union of British North American colonies. Members retained some power over their own affairs (territorial or provincial governments) and turned others over to a central government (Federal government)


1. Political gridlock in United Province of Canada. Separate into Ontario and Quebec made more sense.
2. A railway linking the colonies was needed to increase trade and move troops.
3. Cancellation of the Reciprocity Treaty in 1863 ended free trade between US and British North America. Colonies needed to trade freely amongst themselves with no taxes.
4. US was threatening to take over British North America. Colonies wanted to join together to be stronger in opposing this.
5. Great Britain wanted her colonies to be more self-sufficient. UK didn't want to continue paying for the colonies' military and government.
6. By joining together (Ontario to the maritimes) they would be stronger and could start expanding into Rupert's Land (prairies) and the North West Territories.

NOTE (November 26) The Charlottetown Conference

In 1864, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and PEI wanted to form their own political union of maritime provinces. United Province of Canada "crashed the party" to try to join this union by convincing the maritime provinces they could be stronger together. Building a railway across the colonies was a BIG selling point. They decided to all meet in Quebec the next month to work out the details.

NOTE (November 26) The Quebec Conference


United Province of Canada- The vote for Confederation was 91-33. The "no" votes were mostly from French speaking delegates from Canada East. They were afraid of losing their language and culture.

PEI- They said no. They were afraid their little province would have very little power in Confederation. They also did get the 200 000 British pounds to buy off the island's absentee landlords. Furthermore, PEI made most of their money from tariffs, so free trade would be devestating to their economy.

NOVA SCOTIA- Wanted a railway to link them to Canadian markets. Once they knew that UK supported Confederation they didn't feel guilty and were mostly FOR confederation.

NEW BRUNSWICK- They wanted the railroad, and also were very afraid of being attacked by the US. They were FOR Confederation.

NEWFOUNDLAND- They had nothing in common with United Province of Canada and were never really interested in a federal union. Soon as they heard other maritime provinces were having their doubts, they said NO>


Who was there? UPC, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick

What is a subsidy? Extra payment/financial assistance. This was arranged for the provinces of the new "Canada"

What was the British North America Act?
The BNA Act is the bill that contained the modified 72 resolutions that formed the agreement making Canada a country.

NOTE (December 11) The Years After Confederation

ASSIMILATION- When one culture is absorbed into another. At the time of Confederation (1867) assimilation meant introducing laws aimed at forcing people to give up their own culture and adopt the "majority" culture.

DID YOU KNOW??- The BNA gave the Canadian government complete authority over "Indians and lands reserved for Indians". Later the "Indian Act' would say that in order to vote, drink alcohol, serve in the armed forces, marry outside the Native community etc. they had to give up all their rights and identity as Native people.


1. Explain why the Canadian government wanted to gain
control of Rupert's Land.

2. Why did the Metis people feel threatened by the action of the Canadian government regarding Rupert's Land?

3. Identify the issue debated on page 157 in the text. Relate it to the Canadian government's purchase of Rupert's Land.

4. With which point of view would you have agreed? Give reasons for your answer.

5. Why is it important to look at an issue from various points of view?

6. Predict some problems that may have resulted because of the points of view expressed here.